Factors prospectively associated with physical activity and dietary related outcomes in people with severe mental illness: A systematic review of longitudinal studies
Suzan Hassan, Jamie Ross, Louise Marston, David Osborn, Kate Walters
Understanding factors that contribute towards physical activity and diet outcomes are important for health improvement in people with severe mental illness. Cross-sectional findings on factors associated with diet and physical activity outcomes provide limited information on what predicts changes or long-term outcomes in lifestyle behaviours in people with severe mental illness. A systematic review was therefore conducted to identify prospective studies with quantitative data on baseline factors associated with follow-up diet or physical activity related outcomes. MEDLINE, EMBASE, PsycINFO, CINAHL Plus and grey literature databases were searched from inception to March 2018. From 6921 studies, 5 were eligible for physical activity related outcomes and 2 for diet related outcomes. The follow-up duration was 4 weeks to 24 months and participants were mostly diagnosed with schizophrenia. Older age was commonly related to better physical activity related outcomes, whilst higher negative symptoms were related to poorer-related outcomes. Physical activity intentions and gender were unrelated to physical activity outcomes. There was a lack of data on factors influencing dietary outcomes. Although there were some common factors predictive of physical activity including older age and negative symptoms, more high-quality research is needed to determine the effect of sociodemographic, mental health, social, clinical, lifestyle and other factors on both physical activity and dietary outcomes.