A cohort study of trends in the prevalence of pregestational diabetes in pregnancy recorded in UK general practice between 1995 and 2012
Coton SJ, Nazareth I, Petersen I
Objective: To describe the characteristics of pregnant women with and without pregestational diabetes and to estimate the prevalence of pregestational diabetes in pregnant women recorded in a UK primary care database. Methods: The data source for this study is The Health Improvement Network (THIN) primary care database. Pregnant women with and without diabetes aged 16 years and over were identified using diagnostic Read codes and prescriptions for antidiabetics from medical records. Data were examined on: age, body mass index (BMI), social deprivation, smoking, ethnicity and glycaemic control. The prevalence of pregestational diabetes was calculated by diabetes type and calendar year between 1995 and 2012. Results: Data from 400 434 pregnancies suggests that women with pregestational diabetes were: older (median 29, 32 vs 29 years for type 1, type 2 and without diabetes, respectively), had higher BMI (median 25.0, 30.4 vs 23.9 k/m2 for type 1, type 2 and without diabetes, respectively) and were registered with a general practice for longer than pregnant women without diabetes. The prevalence of type 1 diabetes in pregnancy increased from 1.56 to 4.09 per 1000 pregnancies between 1995 and 2015. For type 2 diabetes the increase was from 2.34 to 5.09 per 1000 pregnancies between 1995 and 2008 followed by a more rapid increase to 10.62 per 1000 pregnancies by 2012. Conclusions: Pregnant women with pregestational diabetes were older, had higher BMI and were registered for longer than women without diabetes. The prevalence of type 1 and type 2 diabetes increased in pregnancy. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes rose more rapidly with a marked increase after 2008.