Comparison of risk factors for, and prevalence of, antibiotic resistance in contaminating and pathogenic urinary Escherichia coli in children in primary care: prospective cohort study
Ashley Bryce, Céire Costelloe, Mandy Wootton, Christopher C Butler, Alastair D Hay.
Background All-cause antibiotic prescribing affects bowel flora antimicrobial susceptibility, and may increase risk of urinary autoinoculation with antibiotic-resistant microbes. However, little is known about relative prevalence of, or risk factors for, antimicrobial resistance among potentially pathogenic microbes thought to be contaminating and infecting urine. Methods Secondary analysis of 824 children under 5 years of age consulting in primary care for an acute illness and their Escherichia coli isolates cultured at ≥103 cfu/mL from the Diagnosis of Urinary Tract infection in Young children (DUTY) study. Multivariable logistic regression investigating risk factors for resistance to amoxicillin, co-amoxiclav, cefalexin, ciprofloxacin, trimethoprim, nitrofurantoin and cefpodoxime in microbes meeting the laboratory criteria for urinary tract infection: ‘pathogens’ (>105 cfu/mL, n = 79) and ‘contaminants’ (103 to 105 cfu/mL, n = 745). Results Forty-three percent of E. coli were resistant to at least one tested antibiotic, with resistance highest to amoxicillin (49.37% pathogenic versus 37.32% contaminant, P = 0.04), trimethoprim (27.85% versus 16.52%, P = 0.01) and co-amoxiclav (16.46% versus 21.48%, P = 0.30). Multidrug resistance (to ≥3 antibiotic groups) was present in 17.07% of pathogens and 30.13% of contaminants (P = 0.04). No isolates were resistant to nitrofurantoin. Recent (0–3 months) exposure to antibiotics was associated with resistance in both pathogens (aOR: 1.10, 95% CI: 1.01–4.39) and contaminants (1.69, 1.09–2.67). Conclusions Prevalence of resistance (including multidrug) was high, but there was no consistent relationship between isolate pathogen/contamination status and resistance. Recent all-cause antibiotic prescribing increased the probability of antimicrobial resistance in both pathogenic and contaminating urinary E. coli in children in primary care.